Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Tanolis or Tunawalis


A Tanoli, Hazara, 1868




A surveyor, Syed Ghulam Muhammad, describe the Tanolis in 1780 in the following manner ;

"Tunawal is the name of a small territory lying on the east bank of the Aba-Sin, about twenty kuroh in length, and about the same in breadth, through which the Siran river flows from north to south, but inclining a little to the south-west. It is a very mountainous tract of country, and its inhabitants belong to different tribes, a number. of whom are Afghans; and the Pushto language is spoken among them all. The chieftainship lies with the Tunawalis, who account themselves to be of Mughal descent; but, at present, they are scarcely distinguishable in their appearance from the Afghans and various other peoples of this part. Latterly, according to some accounts, they have laid claim to be descended from the tribe of Birlas –Amir Timur's own tribe. “The Tunawal's number about 20,000 families, and consist of two septs or divisions, named respectively Pul Al, and Hando or Ando Al, the words being written both ways. The former hold the parts east of the Siran, or south-east portion of Tunawal, and the latter those on the west or north-west part. The latter tracts belong to Pa'indah Khan, and were held by his ancestors before him. Their chief places and seat of authority are Bir, Puhar, and Dera'h."

Tanawal, or Tunawal, as the Akhand, Darwezah, and the people of the district itself, write the word and pronounce it ——was overrun by the Afghans in the latter part of Akbar Badshah's reign. The contemporary writer Akhund Darwezah, says in his Tazkirat, that, from the time of Malik Ahmad and Khan Kaju up to his own time, the most powerful chief among the Yasufzís and Mandars was 'Ali Asghar, and the most successful in his enterprises. No chief among them had reduced the Kohistan of Tunawal, but he accomplished it, with the aid of other headmen of the subdivisions of the two tribes, such as Malik Hindal, the Akozi; Malik Bábá, Malizi; Matah Khan, and Mulla Ibrahim, Ilyaszi; Malik Tarki, Mandar; and others. 'Ali Asghar completely reduced that tract, and expelled its former inhabitants. From that time portions of Afghan tribes have been settled on the Indus, in parts formerly included in Tunawal ("Notes on Afghánistan and Part of Baluchistan", Henry George Raverty, pp-275-276)

Sunday, July 16, 2017

Jihad of Haji Sahib of Turangzai and the Mohmand blockade during the First World War



Haji Sahib of Turangzai, after his migration to the Tribal territory, started his Jihad movement against the British. In June 1915 with a lashkar 4,000 strong , he invaded British territory on the north-eastern border of Peshawar. In August 1915, he had raised a laskar in Buner and fought against the British forces at Pirozai, Malandri and Ambela passes while his eldest son Badshah Gul-I was then busy organizing Mohmands against the British. Haji Sahib moved to Swat, Bajaur and finally settled in the Mohmand territory. His religio-spirtual reputation enabled him to raise Mohmand lashkars against the British many a time. British troops were rushed again and again to Shabqadar , at the main approach to Mohmand territory.

In August 1915, Mohmands fought a  fierce battle with the British forces at Michini-Abazai near Shabqadar. Both sides suffered heavily. The Mohmands lost 400 killed and 1,000 wounded. This did not deter them. They in October 1915, once again attacked the British force , with a lashkar of about 9,000 men. The Babra Mullah Sahib of Bajaur led a 1,000 strong tribal lashkar against Shabqadar in September , 1915, and 3,000 in October, 1915. The Bajauris had also brought lashkars to attack the Dir Levy posts in August , September and October , and the Swat Levy post of Kalonji and Kot Totai in November , 1915.

A blockade of the Mohmands against the upper section of the tribe had been ordered in August 1915. Negotiations led to a settlement in April, 1915. Once again a close blockade of the offending sections, the Halimzai, the Tarakzai and Pindiali Mohmands, was ordered. A barbed wire fence was raised , with alive wire charged with electric current on the Mohmand side of it ; nevertheless the tribal lashkars continued to carry out raids on the British territory. On the 15th November , 1917, Haji Sahib,  assisted by the Babra Mullah Sahib and Doda Jan of Bajaur , fought valiantly against the British troops. The tribal lashkar on this occasion was 6,000 strong but only about 1,000 soldiers could be deployed in the field.  



Sources:

1- "The life and times of Haji Sahib of Turangzai" by Muhammad Fahim Khan,  Islamic Studies, Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring 1977), pp. 329-341

2- "History of the Pathans" by Haroon Rashid, Volume-2



No.12 Blockhouse on the Mohmand Blockade

‘Live wire’ on the Mohmand Blockade Line c.1917
The Mohmand Blockade

The 2/4 Border Regiment constructing the Mohmand Blockade line

The Mohmand Blockade - note the armoured car.

Haji Sahib of Turnagzai




 

Sunday, July 9, 2017

History of Quetta



The name Quetta originates from the Pashto word Kwatta which means a fort. A story is told by Brahuis that that Ahmad in conferring the district on the mother of Nasir Khan, Bibi Mariam, said “this is your shal,” i.e., your present.” This statement does not have any historical evidence. The historical incidences show that Shal is an ancient name and the place was known by this name a thousand years ago. Geographers of the Islamic period have mentioned this region, which stretches from Mastang to Seyoon, as Walishtan.  Arab traveler Abu Abdullah Mohammad bin Maqdasi, writing in 898 AD, name the cities of Walishtan as Eishin (Pishin) Asbedja, Mastung, Shal, Sekeera, and Seywa (Siwi or Sibi). He repeats these names in page 297 of his book. Shal is also mentioned in 'Tarikh-nama-i-Herat (written in 1318 AD) to be a place in Afghanistan in the narration of events of 1250 AD.  According to historian Allama Habibi ," It (Shal) is not a new name and the people of Kandahar, until the present time, call the fruit merchants of Quetta as Shaalkotyan. Kote is an old Pashto word which means a fortress and Shaal Kot means the fortress of Shaal".


Gulbadan-Begum (sister of Emperor Humayun) mentions Shal and Mastung in the biography Humayun-nama ;
".....The Emperor (Humayun) was stupefied and bewildered , and said : 'What is to be done? where i am to go?' They all consulted together. Tardi Muhammad Khan and Bairam Khan gave it as their opinion that it was impossible to decide to go anywhere but to the north and Shal-Mastun(g), the frontier of Qandahar. 'There are many Afghans in those parts', they said , 'whom we shall draw over to our side." (Humayun-nama, English translation by Anetta.S.Beveridge, p-165) 
According to Ain-i-Akbari of Abu Fazal (written around 1590 AD) , Shal was dependency of Kandahar in later half of sixteenth century . Shal had mud fort at that time and its lands were assessed at four and half tumans in money, 940 sheep and 780 kharwars in grain. The Kasi Afghans of Shal (along with Balochs) had to furnish 1,000 horse and 1,000 foot.

In the reign of Shahjehan (1628-1655) Rajo and Zangi, Rind chiefs raided Shal by way of the Bolan. They were defeated by the Kasis after a severe engagement about three miles south of Quetta. Since then the small stream of Zangi Lora was given its name , as the action took place at its source when Zangi, the Rind chief, was killed. (Memoir on Kalat by G.P.Tate as quoted by A.Aziz Luni in 'Afghans of the frontier passes' p-228)

When Ahmad Shah Abdali became king, the valley of Shal formed a part of his dominions and the office of Arbab was conferred upon Muhammad Thalib Kasi. Mahbat Khan Brahui of Kalat killed him when he was at village Katir. News of the occurrence immediately was dispatched to Kandahar, and Ahmad Shah summoned Mahbat Khan to Kandahar to explain how he came to slay the Shah's representative in Shal.  (Memoir on Kalat by G.P.Tate as quoted by A.Aziz Luni in 'Afghans of the frontier passes' p-229)  

Qazi Nur Muhammad Kalhora (a servant of Mir Nasir Khan) in his Jangnama contends that Ahmad Shah Abdali, on return from one of his Indian campaigns, on a written request from Mir Nasir Khan, granted Shal to and also sanction some cash awards for the Brahui Mujahids. Kasis say Shal always remained theirs. Compiler Hatu Ram, also, on page 624 of his Tarikh-i-Baluchistan (1907) quotes a Sanad granted by Ahmad Shah Abdali to Tarin Afghans in which the Shah incidentally acknowledged the fact that Shal valley belongs to Kasi Afghans. This the compiler considers an astonishing statement especially in view of the common impression that Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed Shal on Naseer Khan Brahui. Hitu Ram therefore, conjectures that it is quite possible that the Shah subsequently restored Shal to Kasis because of his annoyance at the subsequent rebellious conduct of Mir Nasir Khan. Hitu Ram also quotes a document given to Kasis by Nasir Khan I in which the precise outer limits of the Shal valley (owned by Kasis) were defined. This shows that at least Abdali and Nasir Khan both considered the valley of Shal to be a legitimate possession of the Kasi Afghans. (Afghans of the frontier passes' by A.Aziz Luni, p-229)    


Description of Quetta by Sir Keith Alexander Jackson who was a captain in the Fourth Light Dragoons in the British army, part of the Anglo-Indian force that set out for Afghanistan from British India in December 1838 ;

"Kwettah , the capital of the Beloochie (Kalat's) province of Shawl, is a small town surrounded by a wall of mud ; the houses are built of the same material , and are but few in number, the population being poor and inconsiderable. In the center, is the citadel , where is the residence of Governor : it is built upon an elevation, overlooking the town, which may be about four hundred yards across. There are four gates in the wall surrounding it , which open on to a very luxuriant part of the valley. The situation of Khettah, from its proximity to the mountains, is grand and striking. It was from this part of the valley , during its occupation by the Bengal column by the army , that the Kakur (Kakar) freebooters carried off about fifty of the commiserate camels ; they were pursued by a party of troops of the 2nd light cavalry , and a company of native infantry, but without a success, as the booty had been driven into the mountains , and no trace of them could be discovered. They afterwards made another sally from their mountain fastnesses, and carried off some camel that were grazing , belonging to the troops. Sir John Keane and Shah Shoojah , on their arrival, shortly afterwards, made Kwettah their headquarters. The gardens surrounding the town are full of English flowers and fruits , and its vicinity abounds in the buttercup and cyanus, and many other varieties of English field vegetation. "  

Sir Thomas Holdich writing in 1884 in the Baluchistan District Gazetteer stated that, 'The crown of Quetta was the miri. The miri has been the fortress of Quetta from time immemorial and the basis of the fortress is what was probably a mud volcano in days that are prehistoric'



'Kwettah', 1839 (c).

Quetta, view looking to the fort with hills in the background ,1880.  From Macnabb collection





Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Shah Tahmasp's advice to Humayun on Pashtuns




Tahmasp I (1514 – 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran of the Safavid dynasty. After getting defeated by Sher Shah Sur, Humayun sought refuge with Shah Tahmasp. Zakhirat-ul-Khawanin (Eng.trans, Vol-I, pp-103-104) records an interesting conversation that took place between Humayun and Shah Tahmasp ;

Shah Tahmasp: "Among Indian which class commands the obedience of big tribes , possess princely grandeur and are brave" ?

Humayun: "The Afghans and the Rajputs"

Shah Tahmasp: "Are they friendly with each other" ?

Humayun: "No"

Shah Tahmasp: "You can not win the friendship of the Afghans ; deprive them of military service and force them to become merchants and artisans"

According to Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, Sher Shah Sur had contemplated to form an alliance with the Ottoman Sultan against Safavid Persia. For this purpose Sher Shah Sur sent Mir Saiyid Rafiuddin with his letters to the court of Sultan of Rum . (Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, English transl. Vol-I, pp-480-481.

The painting below shows the meeting between Shah Tahmasp and Humayun at Isfahan.


Saturday, July 1, 2017

An eighteenth century account of the Wazir tribe





A Waziri tribesman with rifle, 1919. Photograph by R.B.Holmes


An early notice of the Wazirs in an original Muslim source comes from the times of Timur Shah Durrani about the year 1780. The author of the surveys, Syed Ghulam Muhammad, describe the Wazirs in the following manner ;

"The Waziri Afghans are a great and powerful tribe numbering nearly 100,000 families ; and they dwell in an extensive tract of difficult mountainous country , with few exceptions , after the manner of ilats or nomads. They are not much better than the brute beasts ; for , save eating and drinking , moving about among their hills and dales like cattle , thieving , and plundering on the highways, and dying , they know nought besides.

Their chief wealth consists of numerous flocks and vast number of cattle of different kinds, including numerous cows and oxen. They pass their lives under tents , and cultivate the available patches of land called kats on the banks of various streams and watercourses which run through their country , and in the defiles with which it abounds , but, of the usages of agriculture generally they are ignorant.

This great tribe is wholly independent , and they have neither tax nor tribute to pay , and own allegiance to no one. Being subdivided into a number of branches , they do not acknowledge the authority of an hereditary , or of a single chief , but have numerous headmen , who hold a little authority ; and these are chosen with the consent and accord of the branch or division to which they belong , but, when about to undertake a war-like expedition , a leader is elected , whom all implicitly obey. There is no doubt but that very much less internal disagreement exists among the Waziris than any other Afghan tribe, and the consequence is, that, being more united, they are much more powerful. It is very certain that they know their own strength, and are proud of it. Their country extends from the Daman to the territory of the Bangash Karlanri tribes, more than one hundred kuroh in length, and in breadth fifty kuroh. Karni-Gram is situated in one of their mountain dara'hs. They have iron mines about there, near Makin and Babar Ghar, and make exceedingly good knives and swords. There is no level land, so to say, in their country, which consists of some of the highest spurs, ridges, and offshoots, on either side of the eastern range of Mihtar Suliman, Koh-i-Siyah, Ghar, Kasi Ghar, Shu-al or Shu-al Ghar, as it is also called, as well as by other designations already mentioned. Wherever a small area is found capable of being cultivated it is brought under tillage, and is called by a separate name [the name of the clan or section who cultivate] . These Afghan people entertain an inveterate hatred towards people of Hindustan." 

("Notes on Afghanistan", H.G.Raverty, pp-534-535)

Thursday, June 22, 2017

Baz Bahadur



By Abdul Halim, M. A.



Baz Bahadur, the last Afghan king of the kingdom of Malwa, was the son of Shuja’t Khan, who, on the restora­tion of Humayun, had declared his independence. On Shuja’t Khan’s death in 1554-55, his kingdom became divided between his three sons,  Dawlat Khan,  Bayazid Khan and Mustafa Khan. Bayazid killed Dawlat Khan following a treacherous attack and added Ujjain and Mandu to his territories and assumed the title of Baz Bahadur Khan. But when he attacked Mustafa Khan who ruled over Bhilsa and Raisian and chased the prince to Gondwana, Baz Bahadur sustained a severe defeat at the hands of Rani Durgavati, the regent of the kingdom, ruling it on behalf of her son, prince Viranarayan. Baz Bahadur reached Sarangpur, his capital, badly wounded, and leaving his baggage, men and ensign in the hands of the enemy. Since then he immersed himself in pursuits of pleasure, and enjoyed his time in the midst of songstresses and dancing girls, the chiefest of whom was Rupmati. The latter was a Hindu girl of rare charm and beauty, sweetness and grace in conversation, a poetess of Persian and Hindi, a faultless reciter, composer and singer. He loved Rupmati and Rupmati loved him and the pair, according to Firishta, never separated at any time of day or night. Rupmati has been described by contemporaries as a Padmini, highest and the most perfect type of women remarkable for their beauty, good disposition, height, well­-proportioned physique, softness of speech, grace and chastity and devotion to her lord. Baz Bahadur soon lost his grip over the administration; the army became demoralised and nobles corrupt. This state of affairs encouraged Akbar, then a youth, to send a formidable army under Adham Khan, Atka and Pir Muhammad Khan Shirwani in 1560. Baz Bahadur came to defend his capital when the Mughals had appeared within two miles of the defences erected by him outside Saranapur. He fought, got defeated and fled ‘disgrace being his only companion’, leaving his camp and harem in the hands of enemies. Baz Bahadur’s men struck Rupmati and a few others with sword according to instructions in order to save them from disgrace following capture. Believing they were dead, they went to the palace to kill the rest. Meanwhile the Mughals had entered the city and the ladies were running for shelter and the executioners took to their heels. On entering the palace Adham Khan who had captured the hiding ladies, made enquiries about Rupmati and was informed that she was still alive. Instructing his men to take proper care of the wounded, he sent words to Rupmati assuring her that, on her recovery she would be sent to her husband. On this Rupmati sent the following couplet in Persian as token of her gratitude.

ﺟﺎﻥ ﻣﺎﺳﺖ ﺍﯾﻥ ﻣﮊﺪﻩ ﺁﺳﺎﺋﺵ ﺟﺎﻥ ﻧﺷﺎﻧﻢ ﺭﻭﺍ ﺳﺖ – ﮔﺭ ﻣﮊﺪﻩ ﺑﺮﯾﻦ

Adham Khan who had other designs, postponed her departure saying that Baz Bahadur must first submit to the emperor. One night, he having sent his men to bring Rupmati to his quarters was told by her that she would go if the Khan came. When Adham Khan came and approached her cot, he found her sleeping the slumber of death, decked in her jewels and garland of flowers, and perfumes heavily smeared. On enquiry, he was told that after sending back Adham Khan’s messengers, she wept bitterly in memory of her husband and swallowed camphor mixed with sesame oil. Admiring her fidelity to her husband he ordered for burial. Not long after, Adham Khan was relieved of the governorship of Malwa and superseded by Pir Muhammad Khan Shirwani. Baz Bahadur invaded Malwa with the assistance of Miran Mubarak Shah, ruler of Khandesh. He defeated Pir Muhammad Khan who lost his life in retreat by being drowned in the waters of the Narbada. Baz Bahadur retained Malwa for some months till his ejection by Abdullah Khan Uzbak, Akbar’s new governor (970/1561-62). Baz Bahadur who fled Malwa a second time without an encounter, roamed for sometime in the forests and hills, went to various chiefs in Gujrat, to Burhan-ul-Mulk, ruler of Ahmadnagar and to Rana Udaisimh of Mewar. But unable to move any court on his behalf, he submitted to Akbar and was enlisted as a mansabdar of 1000 troopers and later on of 2000 zat and 2000 Sawar. Baz Bahadur has been described by contemporary historians as being a skilful rider, an archer and a polo player. He was a zealous builder as well, whose palace and the pavilion of his consort can still be seen among the ruins of Mandu. Not much is known about Baz Bahadur’s contribution to music except the information that he was a master in Hindustani music. He has been placed by posterity in the rank of a Gandharv, that is one who was well conversant with the practical music of his own and the past times. He is listed by Abul Fazl as a top musician of Akbar’s court, and was perhaps considered next to Tansen, Baba Ramdas and Nayak Charju and sang in a style of his own which became known, according to Abul Fazl, as the Bazkhani ; He should have been considered as the representative of the Dhrupad school of singing of which Raja Man of Gwalior was the founder. But being a prince, born and brought up in north , he can be regarded as being conversant with the Khiyal school of music, of which Husain Shah Sharqi, king of Jawnpur was the greatest exponent in the recent past. In the collection of songs attributed to him in the Encyclopaedia of Music, there are a few dohas, two lined verses, corresponding to Sthai and Antara of Khiyal, sung in Dhima Tintal, a time beat not allowed in Dhrupad. It may be conjectured that the Bazkhani style was a mixture of Dhrupad and the Muslim style of music corresponding to Khiyal. Baz Bahadur was an expert dancer and I have literary evidences to prove that he danced with the anklets of pearls instead of the ordinary ones of brass, and he danced in the company of his dancers imagining himself Krishna sporting with the Gopis, of whom the principal one was his lady love. Rupmati, occupying the position of Radha. The themes of Baz Bahadur’s extant songs are Krishna’s sports in Vrindaban, the sprinkling of coloured water in the spring festival, at least one song invoking the assistance of God, a very natural thing from a man who had suddenly stepped from the throne into tire abyss of misfortune, but none bearing a melancholy strain, and none carrying any reference to his lady love, Rupmati. The style of Baz Bahadur’s composition is simple and the diction corresponds to the easy Khari dialect of Delhi and Mirut. Rupmati wrote in chaste, elegant and learned Braj. A collection of her verses in a translated form has been prepared by Mr. L. M. Crump, under the title of ‘The lady of the Lotus’ Oxford, 1926). I have collected four Hindi songs from the Encyclopaedia of Indian music. In most of the poems bearing her pen­name she appears as one who sees her husband in sleep and wakefulness, one who has surrendered herself completely to her lord and thinks of the futility of writing letters to him because he always dwells in her heart. She represents the highest virtues of a woman in an oriental society. The poems she is supposed to have composed in captivity are full of pathos. The following are two of Baz Bahadur’s compositions.

Rag Ramkali Dampati
khelat hors mahal men
Sobha barni na jai
Sakuch chhar ang ang liptane saras mate douw
Baz Bahadur fagua saras machai

The couple sprinkles coloured water in the palace, the beauty of which scene cannot be described. Abandoning modesty they are clasping body, with body, both intoxicated with mirth. Baz Bahadur celebrates the spring festival merrily.

This evidently applies to Baz Bahadur, because Krishna never played holi in a palace. The following pad, in Rag Bhairawn, is an invocation to God.
Karta tumko kini sub layak
Meri mushkil karo asan
Jo jo tohe takabay, man ichha phal pabay.
Sub gunijan ke sukhdai Baz Bahadur Gun nidhan rakhat sabko man

Oh Creator, I have made thee my judge . Thou easest my hardships;. Whoever looks to thee,. thou fulfillest his desire. Thou art the bestower of happiness to all the virtuous. O Baz Bahadur, the Refuge of the virtuous, keeps. everybody's respects.

The following are a few of Rupmati’s songs expressive of her sense of sorrow at separation from her lord under con­dition of captivity.

Papre phulan ke kari dhari jab
Baz Bahadur motan dhare charan
Bar bar dari sakal abhushan
Mokoto piyake sudrisht amaran
Ban ban maney na mane Sudharey [Sidharey]
Rupmati ke hichuran ko bhul jai
Sakal dukh lehi asran

When the papar flowers sprout their buds;. Baz Bahadur decked with pearls at his feet. Showered jewels on and on;.I pine till death for the good sight of my lover ;. Now he roams proudly, and is unconsoled . My loved one, for thy own sake ;. Forget the separation of Rupmati. She is prepared to seek refuge in every affliction.

The following is a quotation from L. M. Crump’s “The Lady of the Lotus”.

Thou art the whole life to me.
And separation from the death.
Only the memory of thy face Keeps in me in breath.


While I visited the ruins of Mandu in 1944, I gathered that women of Malwa on festive occasions or even while grinding corn, sing the songs composed by Rupmati. According to the author of the Ma’sir-ul-umara, the couple rests on a ridge in the middle of a lake in

There are many love stories like those of Laila-Majnun, Yusuf-Zulaikha and Shiri-Farhad on which writers and artists have employed their craft and ingenuity for centuries but nothing surpasses the story of romantic love between a man and a woman within living memory, as between Baz Bahadur and Rupmati.





The origin of the Hazaras



The author of Rauzat-us Safa tell us that Chenghiz Khan sent his youngest son Tulai to conquer Khurasan and in particular to devastate the great cities of Merv , Nishapur and Herat. All the inhabitants of these cities were slaughtered. The following year he sent an army of 80,000 to kill the whole population of Herat and Afghanistan. He ordered his men to spare no living creatures , not even cats and dogs. It appears that the ancestors of the Hazaras had been settled in this country during the thirteenth century by Chaghatai, Chenghiz Khan's son , or by Manku Khan, his grandson, especially in the lands of Ghor, whose inhabitants had been largely exterminated during the Mongol invasions. Juwaini reports that about 1259, "the children and grandchildren Chenghiz Khan are more than ten thousand , each of whom has his position (muqam) , territory (yurt) , army and equipment.

The descendants of Chenghiz Khan and his officers dominated for a century and a half till Timur replaced them by his own set of officers. The Hazaras, therefore, were probably dependents or followers of Mongol warriors. It is more probable that they represented many of the tribes and races incorporated in the Mongol army. Abu Fazal also declares them to be the offspring of the Mongols. He says that "the Hazaras are the descendants of the Chaghatai army sent by Manku Khan (grandson of Chenghiz Khan) to the assistance of  Halaku Khan" (brother of Manku Khan).

The Mongol origin of Hazaras is said to be attested by their high cheekbones and sparse beard , which readily distinguishes them from Afghan (Pashtun) and Iranian neighbors. Furthermore the word Hazara is said to be the Persian equivalent of the Mongol world ming , meaning 'thousand', the term originally being used to refer to the Mongol military unit of 1,000. The Mongol regiments were also styled from the number of men they usually contained. The term was applied to these people in consequence of their having been left there as military colonists in detachments of a thousand fighting men each by Chengiz Khan.

The descendants of Halaku, who exercised  authority in Persia after him, were known as 'IlKhans'. The last ruler of Ilkhanate dynasty was Abu Said (1316-34), and Malik Chopan was his premier officer who led his army into eastern Khurasan and settled there. The Dai Chopan , a major Hazara tribe, was named after him. Following the fall of the Ilkhanates , shortly after the death of Abu Said (1334) , there was a power vacuum in Iran.  In 1381 Timur overran the city of Herat , Khurasan and all eastern Persia and laid claim to the provinces of Qandahar , Garamshir and Kabul. Several other cities terrified by Timur's success, submitted to him. Timur, after a great slaughter also established his power over the Persian province of Mazendaran, with its capital at Astrabad , which was governed by a descendant of Shaikh Besud , an Ilkhan officer. The Besudis , another major Hazara tribe , was named after him. Under his sons and successors , troops and officials were sent to the area , and it is probable that some of them remained thereafter the death of Besud's son, Shah Rukh in 1447.


Source: "The Hazaras of Afghanistan in Mughal times" by Farha Samreen , Proceedings of the Indian History Congress ,Vol. 70 (2009-2010), pp. 821-829 




"A Hazarah peasant of the Ghuznee Country", 1836 (painted), Godfrey Thomas Vigne (artist)


1878's sketch of a Hazara man