Thursday, July 3, 2014

Lodi dynasty of Multan ( 961-1040 A.D)


Lodi kingdom of Multan



The Arab rulers of  Multan in 10th century were followed by Afghan family from Lodi tribe.Sheikh Hamid Khan Lodi. was a contemporary of Alaptagin his son, Amir Sabuktagin, the founders of the Ghaznavid empire. He ruled from 961 to 999 A.D. According to Ferishta Shiekh Hamid Lodi was an Afghan chieftain and belonged to the Lodi family.

When Sabuktagin invaded the dominions of Jaipal, . Brahman Raja of Lahore in A.D 978 , Shaikh Hamid Lodi sided with Jiapal but when the ruler descended on the throne of Ghazni, the Multan ruler made peace with Subuktageen.

In 1004 A.D. when Sultan Mahmud captured Multan during his second raid the ruler of this family was Abul Futuh Daud Lodi, the grandson of Sheikh Hamid. Daud was said to be a follower of the Ismaeli and Karmat sects. in 1010 A.D. the family was vanquished by Sultan Mahmud and from then on Multan was a state of Ghazni. Arab historians like Ibn-e Aisar and Ibn-e Khaldan write about the confrontation of Sultan Mahmud with Abul Futuh Daud, a Lodi ruler in 1005 A.D. Daud was defeated in the battle and paid a fine of 20,000 dirhams to the Sultan.

Zaien-al-Akhbar written in 1068 A.D by Abdul Hai bin Zohak Gardezi, says : “In 1010 A.D. Sultan Mahmud captured Daud son of Nasr, the ruler of Multan and brought him to Ghazni. He was imprisoned until his death in Ghorak, 30 miles southwest of Kandahar.”

Fakhr Mudabir in Adab-al-Harb, written during the Ghorid rule in the 13th century, says the Sheikh, son of Daud, in 1040 A.D. rose against Sultan Mahmud. The Sultan sent an army under the command of Ahmad Hajib to Multan. When the army reached Multan, the Sheikh fled and took asylum in Mansura, capital of Sind and the Ghaznavid army took control of Multan. That is the last we know of this family.

Some of the prominent rulers of this family are:

-Sheikh Hamid Khan Lodi, circa 980 A.D.
-Sheikh Razi Lodi, nephew of Hamid, circa 980 A.D.
-Abul Futuh Daud Lodi, circa 1004 A.D.
-Sheikh son of Daud, circa 1040 A.D.

According to pata khazana, Sheikh Hamid lodhi and his family were Afghans and their mother tongue was Pashto. The book includes and exchange of poetry between the rulers.

Malik Iqbal Khan Lodi (popularly known as Mallu Iqbal Khan) and his brother Sarang Khan Lodi, who attained high positions during Tughlaq period, were descendants of Shaikh Hamid Lodi.








Sources:  

1- http://www.alamahabibi.com/English Articles\A Century of Lodhi Rule.htm
2- Tarikh-i-Ferishta
3-  "Pakhtana pa Hind ke" by Nasrullah Sobman