Saturday, January 24, 2015

History of Marwats and Tor Lohanis


 By Khan Barmazid





According to the traditional accounts, the Nuhanis are descended from Isu Khan son of Ismael. He is said to have been commonly known as Nuh or Nuhan , and his descendents came to be known as Nuhani , variously corrupted by Afghans into Luhani, Lohani and Lawani.

Like in case of some other Semitic languages, the "n" in Nuh is sometimes changed for "l" , thus Luh or Luhanri. This last mode of writing the name is comparatively modern. In no historical work, even written in India before the reign of Aurangzeb Alamgir will it be found written otherwise than Nuhani or Nuharni. [1]

Thus Pashtun Nuhanis have nothing to do with Lohana or Luvana caste of Hindus found in Gujarat.

 

Bibi Mato and Shah Hussain


The Nuhanis are descended from Bibi Mato, the only daughter of Bait or Baitanay Baba, who devoted himself to a life of religion, attained the odour of sanctity, and hence is known as Shaikh Bait. Bibi Mato's clandestine connection with her husband, a cadet of the family of then petty chiefs of Ghor, who were Shansabani Tajiks [4], named Shah Hussain. Soon after she was lawfully married to Shah Hussain, she gave birth to a son , who, not having been lawfully begotten in wedlock, was styled the "Ghal-zoe" or the illicit son. In due time she gave birth to another , who was named Ibrahim, who, having been lawfully begotten , took precedence over the other sons of his father , although he was the last born. Sawarnaey, the third son of his father by the daughter of daur, bard , kagh , was born before him, but his grandfather declared respecting him "Ibrahim lo-e-daey" , which means in Pashto 'Ibrahim is the greatest or superior", meaning that he was from his birth, as the lawfully begotten son of his daughter , and after this he was known as 'Loedaey". These two words in the shortened plural form, subsequently were applied to distinguish his descendents from those of his brothers. [5]


Ibrahim surnamed Lodi, had three sons, Niazaey, Dotarnaey and Siarnaey. Siarnaey had two sons, Pranaey and Ismael. The latter had three sons, Mahpal, Sur and Nuh or Noah. The descendents of Nuh are called Nuhanis.



Marwat son of Nuhan

Marwat , the progenitor of Marwat tribe, was the eldest son of Nuhan from his first wife , Mashirah, alias Sheri. His descendants, Marwats, at times referred to as Spin Nuhanis or Lohani. His father Nuhan, was son of Ismael, son of Siarney, son of Ibrahim alias Lodi. From his second wife , Turi, Nuhan had five sons, Mama, Miya, Tatur, Patkh (or Shiekh) and Hod. The offspring of six step-brothers of Marwat, are called by the general name of Tor Lohani, though the name is not very commonly used. [6]

Spin Nuhanis

Marwat son of Nuhan, had four sons, Musa, Tapaey, Nuna and Salar. From Musa sprung the Januzai and Baizai sub-clans, the Sulieman Khels, Utman khels and Ahmadza descended from Tapaey, the Milizai and Toraey Khels from Nuna and Achu Khels and Khudu Khels from Sundur, son of Salar, the Suliemanzai, Tutizai, Daulat Khwazi and Tajizai descended from Bahram , another son of Salar son of Marwat.

Tor Nuhanis 

Marwat's first step-brother had three sons, Yasin, Haider and Yaqoob. Yasin (or Younas) was progenitor of Daulat Khel Powindas and their Kinsemen inhabiting Tank with their several branches and those of Hassan Khel. Haider (or Khizr) was the founder of the Lake, Bura, Ibrahim and Khod Khel tribes. Yaqoob was the founder of Yaqoob Khel named after him.
Marwat's second step-brother Miya was the progenitor of Miya Khel Powindas of Draband territory. He had two sons Lot and Sonn who founded the two tribes of these names with 6 or 7 sub-tribes.

Marwat's third step-brother Tatur or Tatoor had two sons, Aso and Musa, founders of the Khels named after him.

The descendants of Patkh and Hod mostly migrated to India, rest were absorbed by the other Nuhanis.




Original abode of Marwats and other Nuhanis

Ghor in Afghanistan is believed to be the original abode of Marwats and other Nuhanis. They descended from Ghor to Panah and Karabagh districts of Ghazni . From Ghazni they descended to Katawaz where they settled in about 20 villages/camps- collectively known as 'Marwat-Gharai'. During Summer, most of the Lohani men used to go to Bukhara and Samarkand for trading or for buying and selling at Kabul. The women and children , along with some guards, lived in the tents. In Autumn, the tents were stowed away in a friendly fort and men, women , children and animals used to go down the Gomal pass to the Derajat, bivouacking all the way. They then pitched their second set of tents, kept in the Derajat. The men used to go to upper provinces of Hind to be back by April; some men used to stay back to guard the families and the camels. In April, they used to track back through the same pass to their old camps/villages in Ghazni-Katawaz.They were fond of Pomp and show, and exhibited their wealth by braiding the hair of their children with Gold coins, ornamenting their women with massive ear-ings and covering their horses with expensive trappings. Young brides were carried on cushions of silk on the backs of camels, most gorgeously hung with tassels, coins and bells.

Emperor Babur also mentions the Lohani merchants in his Babur-nama. After his raid upon Kohat and the Isa khel Niazis, he moved down to Derajat and returned to Kabul by the Sakhi Sarwar pass. After leaving Bannu and Thal territory and entering the present Tank area, he got entangled with a caravan of Nuhanis. He writes;

"During our stay there, the foragers brought in from villages in the plain, masses of sheep and cattle, and , from Afghan traders met on the roads, white cloths, aromatic roots, sugar, tipuchaqa and horses bred for trade. Hindi Mughal unhorsed Khwaja Khizr Nuhani, a well known and respectable merchant , cutting off and bringing in his head."


War with Ghilzais and exodus from Katawaz

The migration of Marwats from Katwaz to Wana was incidental and traumatic, like that of Helen of Troy in the words of Sher Muhammad Mohmand. It happened that a girl ,named Wasila, from the family of Malik Azad Khan of Suleiman Khel tribe of Ghilzais eloped with the family's servant. Apprehending danger , Wasila and her paramour sought shelter with the Marwats. The Suleiman Khels demanded the girl and the servant back; Marwats refused, being against the tenets of 'Nanawati' (one of the tenets of Pashtunwali). This provoked the Suleiman Khel Ghilzais to attack the Marwats, who at that time did not have distinct identity but were known as Nohanis or Lohanis. The Suleiman Khels were defeated. The defeat jolted the Suleiman Khels heavily so decided to seek the help of other clans of Ghilzais for second war with Lohanis. Other clans of Ghilzais agreed to help their Suleiman Khel cousins against Lohanis . A great strength of Lohanis at that time had migrated to Hind so they were unable to defeat the very large Ghilzai coalition.

After a great battle, Lohanis got defeated , and the couple was supposedly killed by the Suleiman Khels. Lohani clans were expelled from Katawaz, so they came down to the Wana region in South Waziristan .Dadi Khan of Achu Khels led the Marwats during their difficult times. They found the Makeen area congenial to them and their cattle and there they rehabilitated themselves with time. It is said that Wana is named after a Marwat lady. A mountain in name of Marwatai Ghar (Marwati Ghar) still in South Waziristan. It might be that Wana and Makeen were in possession of Lohanis along with Katawaz long before their disastrous defeat at the hands of Ghilzais.

Further downwards the Gomal valley was beforehand inhabited by Afghan tribes of Prangi, Niazi, Suri and Sarwani. Sher Muhammad Mohamand in his booklet “The Marwat” says that Ibn-e-Batuta visited the area 1333 A.D and writes ;
"When i approached Gomal valley through Bayeen pass, i saw the valley was occupied by Suris and Sarwanis"

I have checked English translation of Safar-nama of Ibn-i-Batuta “The travels of Ibn-i-Batuta”, no where he mentions Suris , Sarwanis and Gomal valley. Its false information by Sher Muhammad Mohmand.

Prangis were Lodi Afghans who established the Lodi dynasty in India. They had settled in the Daman tract in the times of Sultan Shahabuddin Ghori, who had probably encouraged and facilitated their settlement there.

Sarwani Afghans had taken possession of Darahban and Chaudwan in the Dera Ismail Khan District during the reign of Shahabuddin Ghori..Suri Afghans, the tribe of Sher Shah Suri, were Lodi Afghans like Prangis and were settled at Rori in Dera Ismail Khan.


War of Nuhanis with Prangis and Suris

It is said that cattle of Lohanis would most often be lifted by their cousins tented adjacent to them i.e Prangis. This was constant source of friction between Lohanis and Prangis. This is Lohani version of the story. Prangis are not left in the area to tell their version of story. Shehbaz Khan alias Khan Zaman Khan Daulat Khel, the chief of Lohanis, took a firm decision to attack and annihilate Prangis in 1556 A.D. So fierce was the battle that the Prangis were almost decimated , and what little survived joined their kinsmen in Hind. Suris were also pushed down to Punjab and other regions of Hind. The Lohanis thus became the sole possessors and owners of Gomal valley and Daman. A saint attached to Marwats known as Aba Shaheed (Ancestor of Aba Khel and Dalu Khel) is buried some where on the south of road leading from Tank to D.I.Khan.

Khan Zaman Khan divided the acquired territory of Tank tract into four equal shares amongst the four Lohani tribes which had taken part in the battle against the Prangis as follow,

1- Marwats.............one share (they had by then attained a separate identity)
2-Yaqoob Khel. Haider Khel and Daulat Khel............one share
3- Miya Khel...............one share
4- Tatoor Khel..........one share

Daulat Khel, Kati Khel and Haider Khel got themselves settled in Tank while Yaqoob khel were settled at Dabara, a town near Tank city. Tatoor khel were settled at Tatoor (near Tank). Miya khel and Marwats gave their lands on lease to Daulat khel because they by that time had not migrated in toto. The Khans of Marwats and Miya Khels made annual visits to Shahbaz Khan alias Khan Zaman to collect one fourth of the produce of the whole tract.

As soon as Wana was occupied by Wazirs in the 2nd half of 16th century, the Marwats days at surroundings of Wana in Waziristan got numbered. As a consequence Marwats came down to Tank for permanent settlement in the beginning of 17th century. Colonel Bruce believes that the Marwats vacated Wana around 1629-30 AD. ("Notes on Powindas". p-61)

According to an account, the settlement period of the Marwat in the Daman area is probably during the reign of Lodis. Sir Denzil Ibbitson does not agree to it. In his view the Marwat settled here in the reign of Moghul Emperor Akbar. (Sir Denzil Ibbitson, Lesser Known Tribes of NWFP; India and Pakistan, Vol 11. (Delhi Ammar Prakshan. 1992) Pp. 71-72)


War of Marwats with Daulat Khels and their allies

As soon as Marwats migrated to Tak or Tank in toto, they demanded return of their lands given on lease to Daulat Khels. The later refused to do so. This compelled the Marwats to draw daggers at them , and after a few skirmishes defeated the Daulat Khels and ousted them from Tank. The dispossessed Daulat Khels led by Shehbaz Khan Kati Khel got help from Gandapurs, Babars and Miya Khels. Shahbaz Khan attacked the Marwats, who were , this time unable to defend themselves. The Daulat khels regained possession and took the share of the Marwats.


The date of Marwat occupation of Lakai

Mira Jan Sayal (M.J. Sayal) writes in his book "Da Pukhtano Qabilo Shajare" that, " The Marwat arrived in this area (Lakai) during the early years of the reign of the Mughal King Akbar (1556-1605). Sher Muhammad Momand in his monogram "The Marwats" states that the Marwats occupied Thal territory in 1601. On page 18, he writes , "Marwats came to Lakki in the last days of Emperor Akbar the Great, i.e, some time in 1602. All of these dates are incorrect.

None of these authors have consulted "Tarikh-i-Murassa" written by Afzal Khan Khattak, the grandson of Khushal Khattak. In that source Lakai was still in possession of Niazis during the reign of Shah Jahan and the grown up Khushal Khattak (born in 1613) once raided Lakai of Sarhang Niazis from Chautara'h (located in present-day Karak district) which was in his charge when his father Shahbaz Khan was alive and was the Chief of his tribe (Shahbaz Khan died in 1641 AD)

The proper name of the town and district is "Lakai" which in Pashto language signifies "tail", "termination", "extremity", "after-part", "rear" and the like.


Nuhanis in Hind

During the reign of Tughlaq Sultans, Malik Ghazni Khan Lohani son of Salim Khan, from Aba Khel branch of Miya Khel Lohanis, migrated from Bihar to Marwar (Rajputana) , along with his family and a band of his tribe. One of his descendant, Malik Khurram Khan moved to Jalore and conquered it from Rajputs after death of its ruler Bisaldev Chauhan in 1392 A.D and founded an independent state of Jalore under Afghan rule. After some time, Malik Khurram Khan Nuhani, obtained the royal sanad and robe from Sultan of Delhi, Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, through recommendation of subedar of Gujarat.

In the late 14th century, the Lohanis, like other Matti and Bhittani tribes were militarily strong enough to catch the attention of Amir Taimoor. The latter, in 1398 AD, invaded India. He asked the local tribes to join his force. The contribution of Lohani and other Lodi tribes in reduction of
India was of material importance. Lohanis took maximum advantage of the chaotic situation that prevailed in the wake of Amir Taimoor's invasion of India. Taking advantage of favorable circumstances offered by Lodhi dynasty, the tribal chiefs and adventurous youths from Lohanis including Marwats, established themselves in Hind.

The Nuhanis made a great figure in Bihar and Bengal, before, at the time, and after the fall of dynasty of Sur, who ruled over the empire of Delhi, and it was only during the reign of Jehangir Badshah, in 1612 AD, that the Afghan power in the extreme east of Indus finally fell. Khwaja Usman, who for a long period in those parts, was of Miya Khel, and Darya Khan, who was one of the great nobles of Sultan Sikander Lodi, and who subsequently became ruler over Bihar, was a Musa Khel. Bahadur Khan, the Tatur, likewise exercised sovereign power in that part for some time.

Sultan Sulieman Karrani (Karlanri), the ruler of Gaur and Bengal, who captured the famous idol-temple of Jagunath in Orissa, was succeeded by his youngest son, Daud in 1672 A.D. He was betrayed by his wazir, who was also the commander of his forces, on the field of battle near Ghora-Ghat, having came to an understanding with the Mughals for the purpose.The traitor was Mian Qutlu, a Miya Khel Nuhani. The upshot was that Daud forces were defeated , and he was himself wounded , and perished in the disastrous retreat which ensued. Qutlu, in return for his treachery, was assigned certain tracts of territory in Bir-bhum, between Bengal and Orissa, but for a period of ten years, his friendship for the Mughals was that of the wolf; and having subsequently acquired the means, he suddenly and unexpectedly upon Qiyam Khan Ganj, then the governor of Gaur and Bengal on the part of Akbar Badshah, slew him and overthrew his forces. He exercised sovereignty in these parts for another four years , struggling against the Mughal power , when he was killed by treachery. He left five sons, Khwaja Suleiman, Khwaja Usman, Khwaja Wali, Mulhi and Khwaja Ibrahim.

After the death of Mian Qutlu Nuhani, Isa Khan, another Nuhani of the Miya Khel, assumed power and fought against the legions of Mughal emperor Akbar up to the time of his death. He was succeeded by his son Khwaja Suleiman who gallantly opposed the Mughal forces under Man Singh and others, and was at last killed in a battle. After him came his younger brother, Khwaja Suleiman, who began to reign about 1592-93 AD and whose capital was Dhaka in Bengal. He reigned between nineteen and twenty years ; some times at peace , some times at war with Mughals, his territory gradually diminishing, until, at last, in the reign of Emperor Jehangir, in 1021 H (1612 A.D.), in a battle with the Mughals, he was shot in the forehead by a bullet , when victory was within the grasp, and his troops defeated. He was in his forty-second year ; and with him the Afghan power in the eastern part of the Indian peninsula fell.[3]


Nuhani dynasty of Jalore (Rajasthan)

During the reign of Tughlaq Sultans, Malik Ghazni Khan Lohani son of Salim Khan, from Aba Khel branch of Miya Khel Lohanis, migrated from Bihar to Marwar (Rajputana) , along with his family and a band of his tribe. One of his descendant, Malik Khurram Khan moved to Jalore and
conquered it from Rajputs after death of its ruler Bisaldev Chauhan in 1392 A.D and founded an independent state of Jalore under Afghan rule. After some time, Malik Khurram Khan Nuhani, obtained the royal sanad and robe from Sultan of Delhi, Mahmud Shah Tughlaq, through recommendation of subedar of Gujarat.




Khawas Khan, a Marwat or house-born slave of Sher Shah Suri?

Sher Muhammad Khan Mohmand in his booklet, "The Marwats" misquotes "Tawarikh-Khursheed-i-Jahan" (page-107) and writes,
"According to Khursheed-i-Jahan, Malik Mehr Khan was the Malik and Khan of the Marwats at the time when the Tehsil of Lakki was under their control. He was descendant of Behram kor of the Marwat clan. Allah Dad Khan and Jabbar Khan of Achu Khel clan, Mina Khan of Sikander Khel clan, Gulan Khan of Tittar Khel and Qatal Khan of Musa Khel clan were Maliks of the 2nd grade. Mehr Khan's father , Khawas Khan Lohani (born in 1515), was a senior minister (Field Marshal) in the court of Sher Shah who granted him the title of Amirul-Umara. His real name was Sahib Khan. Due to his gallantry, bravery, and courageous disposition , he earned the name of Khawas Khan....he was , however, killed by Sultan Islam Shah due to some misunderstanding . He lies buried by the side of Lal Darwesh of Delhi. Mehr Khan, then Khan of the Marwats, was son of this great man....."

On page-27 he has :-
"Khawas Khan s/o Umar Khan (the grandson of Behram Khan was the chief of the Marwats from the Behram branch in the (at its) inception). He was one of the brave lieutenants of King Sher Shah Suri and rewarded with 1/10th of the lands of Suri dynasty. ....His real name was Sahib Khan. After his death , the chieftaincy of Marwats came down to his elder son Mehr Khan and then to Noor Khan. The Marwat tribe which was virtually a nation at this time , held allegiance to him. Jabu Khel, Khanzad Khel, Khairo Khel, Midad Khel, Langar Khel, Aghzar Khel and Ghazi Khel - collectively known as Mar Khan Khel, are the offshoots of his progeny. Unfortunately in 1702, when Sikander Khan became the Khan of Lakki town, one Sher Khan was Mehr Khan's brother and Salar Khan's son, claimed to be Khan of Lakki....this rivalry was over the tribute or Qalang of Lakki bazaar which rested with Sikander Khan s/o of Mehr Khan and which Salar Khan s/o of Midad challenged.

The "Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi" ; a reputed work by Abbas Khan Sarwani on the Sur dyansty, has the following to say,
"Sher Khan was not yet told (about his family) that news reached him that Khawas Khan the senior had drowned in the moat around Gaur Fort and that Emperor Humayun, after a peace agreement, had taken over the Chunar fort. Thus shocked and perplexed , he (Sher Khan) sent the younger brother of Khawas Khan, named Sahib Khan, with the title of 'Khawas Khan'

The "Tawarikh-i-Khursheed Jahan" on page-107 has :-
"In the meanwhile, news was reached that Khawas Khan had been drowned in the moat of Gaur Fort, so he (Sher Khan) bestowed the title of Khawas Khan on his (own) brother, Sahib Khan and sent him towards Gaur fort."

A perusal of the above mentioned statements reveal the followings :-

 1- Nowhere does "Tawarikh-i-Khursheed-i-Jahan" or for that matter any other book on the subject mention Khawas Khan, the court noble of Sher Shah, as a Marwat or father of Mehr Khan, the 'Khan' of Marwats. Malik Mehr Khan is not reffered by any credible historian to have been a "Khan" of the Marwats.

2- Sahib Khan was younger brother of Khawas Khan senior and not oof Sher Shah as given by "Tawarikh-i-Khursheed Jahan". He was not a Marwat as quoted by Sher Muhmmad Mohmand. B.Dorn mostly follows "Makhzan-i-Afghani" and is very particular about writing the respective tribal names with each chief or a petty leader of the Lodi and Sur dynasties. He neither makes a mention of any tribal name with Khawas Khan nor of the title 'Khawas Khan' being bestowed on his own (Sher Shah's) brother Sahib Khan. He merely writes on page-108 of his book "History of the Afghans":
"Previous to the arrival of the joyful news , sent by the latter (Raja of Rohtas), Sher Khan had received intelligence from Gaur, of Khuvaz Khan's being drowned in a ditch of that fort and of the conquest of Chunar by the Mughals...He sent Sahib Khan, a brother of Khawas Khan, in the direction of the fort of Gour (Gaur)

3- Khawas Khan was house born slave of Sher Shah , he was son of Sukka Khan and not of Umar Khan Marwat. Ahmad Yadgar (courtier of Daud Khan Karrani, ruler of Bengal, 1572-1576), while writing about the rift that occurred between Azam Humayun Haibat Khan Niazi and Khawas Khan, writes;-
"Khawas Khan asked one of the nobles of Islam Shah, 'you convey my request to the King that i am a slave of Sher Shah and because he had placed Adil Khan under my supervision , i supported him" (see "Tarikh-i-Shahi" p-244)
Badoani writes,
"The rank of vazir and Vakil was bestowed upon one Shamsher Khan, a slave who was the younger brother of Khawas Khan and .....(Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, Vol-I, p-537)

Abbas Khan Sarwani writes:-
"The moment Sher Khan recieved this information, he wrote a note to his slave , named Sukka, the father of Khawas Khan who was in charge of Tanda, which is loacted near Benaras. (Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi, p-51)

According to Tarikh-i-Khan Jahni, p-272,
"Sukka named slave, the father of Khawas Khan, was in charge of (Khawaspur) Tanda"
4- According to Sher Muhammad Mohmand , the so called Khawas Khan Marwat was born in 1515 AD. His son Mehr Khan should have been born about 1540-45 (about 25-30 years after his father). Mehr Khan contemporaries , whom the author mentions as 2nd grade Maliks, lived in 18th century. There is a differnce of two centuries ! How could Mehr Khan live for so long? [7]


Marwats in 17th century, as mentioned in Tarikh-i-Murassa

Tarikh-i-Murassa was written by Afzal Khan Khattak, the grandson of Khushal Khan Khattak. It mentions the conflict between Khattaks ,Marwat-Loharnis and Niazis.
"Between the Loharnis (Marwats of Lakki), the Isa Khels , Sarangs and Mushis (Niazi clans of Isa Khel-Mianwali), the Mir Khels and Nasrattis (Khattak clans), there have been repeatedly stern conflicts. The Lohranis (its Marwat clan) twice invaded Chautra of the Khattaks. On one occasion , they put to death Khalifa, Mashi Khel, who was a noted headman. " [8]

Clashes with the Mughals

According to Tarikh-i-Murassa, Shitaks of Bannu and Marwats had joined their forces to expel the Mughal commanders from the Bannu-Marwat area in 1701-1702 A.D. Bannuchis had expelled Isalat Khan Gakhar (Mughal officer) from Bannu, who took shelter in the fort of Tang. Next they, in combination with Marwats, blockaded the uncompleted fort built by Prince Bahadur Shah (who later became Emperor with the title Shah Alam). After several encounters had taken place , Syed Hussain Barha (the Mughal commander) and his troops had to capitulate ; and the Afghan Maliks of Bannu and Marwat, according to terms , conducted him and his forces , safely out of the Dawar and Bannu-Marwat territory as far as the defile of the Isa Khel Niazis, Tang Darah, on the Muazam-nagar route. [9]


Participation in the Battle of Panipat, 1761

The Marwat chief Begu Khan, with a contingent of 120 Marwat horsemen, served under Ahmad Shah Abdali in the Battle of Panipat. He along with Khan Zaman, the Niazi chief, joined the army of Ahmad Shah Abdali on October 1759, when it entered into Derajat on its way to India.[10]


Marwats during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani

An Indian surveyor in 1792, during the reign of Timur Shah Durrani, has following description of Marwats ;
"The Marwat section (of Nuhanis) consists of about 40,000 families , the greater number of whom follow a nomadic life, but many of them have taken to fixed abodes, and cultivation of the soil. There are at present two sardars or chiefs in this tribe : One, Nur Khan of the Pahar Khel , before referred to as being the rightful chief , and the other, Gul-rang Khan of the Khafiz Khel, who had been lately set up by some sections of the tribe. Nur Khan dwells at Pahar Khel, and Gul-rang Khan, the rival chief at the Pathankot.; and between these rival chiefs there is no accord. Both pay allegiance to Timur Shah Saddozai, badshah of the Kabul , each pay into his treasury 5,000 Rupees as a tenth and each furnishes a contingent of 200 horsemen to the Badshah’s army. Their principle wealth is in cattle ; and they likewise possesses numerous flocks of sheep, and herds of camels. In the winter time they come into the garam-sir or hot parts , in the tracts east of the mountains towards the great river , but, in summer months , they resort to the sard-sir or cool tracts in the mountains" (H.G.Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan, p-322)





Sources:


1- Raverty, Notes on Afghanistan, p-486-87
4- See Raverty on Ghurids
5- Raverty , notes, p-486
6- Muhammad Hayat Khan, "Afghanistan and its inhabitants", p-189
7- History of the Pathans: The Ghurghushti, Beitani and Matti tribes of Pathans by Haroon Rashid
8- Kalid-i-Afghani by Plowden, page-199. Barmazid-67
9- Notes on Afghanistan by Raverty, p-378
10- Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813, p-264
1- The Marwats by Sher Mohammad Khan Mohmand
3- Bannu : or, Our Afghan frontier by Thorburn, S. S
4- Dr. Syed Chiragh Hussain. Dood-e-Chiragh.
5- Sir Denzil Ibbitson, Lesser Known Tribes of NWFP; India and Pakistan, Vol 11