Sunday, January 25, 2015

Jadoons or Gadoons ږدون

They are descended from Jadun, who was son of parnaey, and brother of Kakar, the two latter being sons of Danaey, son of Ghurghast, son of Qais Abdul Rashid.


 Arrival in Hazara region

Jadoons accompanied the Khashi  in the struggle against Dilazaks in expelling the latter from their lands north of river kabul; from the newly conquered country, the jadoons were assigned the territory after battle of Katlang in the eastern part of the Yousafzai 'Samma' near the Indus, presently occupied by them. They probably migrated to east side of Indus (Hazara region) just before Ahmad Shah Abdali's period. Captain Wace also supports this version.

 
Classification of the clan

The tribe is made up of three major divisions, the Salar, Mansur and Hasanzai, have multiplied into many sub-clans. The whole territory of the Salar, Hasanzai and much of that of the Mansur is in the Hazar mountains, being situated on both banks of the dor stream as far as the Urash valley. A portion of the tribe is settled in trans-indus territory on the southern and and western slopes of the Mahaban mountains.


Tribal history

Malik Khaju or Gaju Khan Mandanr succeeded Malik Ahmad  Khan as the chieftain of the Khashi tribes. After a fall from horse Ashraf Khan Jadoon rescued him and treated him.  The pleased Malik gave him his daughter Bakhtu Bibi in marriage and ,it is said,  the Amazai tract in dowry to her. Asharf Khan Jadun had a son named Saidu Khan by Bibi Bakhtu and another son named Mansur Khan from his first wife, Zeba. He died at the age of 95 in 1557 A.D. He was succeeded by his eldest son , Said Khan alias Salar Khan. He along with his Jadoon contingent , fought on the side of the Kashis against the Ghoria khels in the famous battle of Shiekh Tapur near Nowshera in which latter were thoroughly defeated.

In 1562 A.D Saida Khan alias Salar Khan , because of his oppressive rule , was replaced with Mansur khan by the Jadoon jirga. The latter was contemporary and good friend of Yahya Khan Khattak , the grandfather of Khushal khan khattak. He died in 1575 AD at the age of 83 years. He was succeeded by his grandson Khizr Khan.

The Jadoons of Hazara and Gadoon of the Amazai are the descendents of Ashraf Khan Jadoon. From Saida Khan alias Salar Khan descended the Salar clan; from the two sons of Mansur Khan descended the Mansur Khels and Khizr Khan and Hasan Khan (younger brother of khizr Khan) gave birth to the Khizrzai and hasanzai clans respectively.

Khizr Khan as per his will was succeeded by his daughter's son , Shah Zaman. During his chieftainship , being the allies of yousafzai, the khattaks attacked the Jadoons  in the Chach tract. A fierce battle was fought near Ghurghast village  and Khattaks were defeated. Shah Zaman died in 1628 AD and was succeded by his son, Mahmud.

Mahmud adopted the title of Sultan. He was in communication with Khan Jahan Lodhi, the famous noble of the Emperor Shahjahan's court and when the former rebelled against the emperor, Sultan Mahmud tried to organize the local Ghurghasti tribes to rise against the Mughals and liberate the Pashtuns from Mughal shackles. However, before he could do so, Khan Jahan Lodhi was captured and executed and he too had to face the Mughal wrath. Emperor Shahjahan ordered Shehbaz Khan Khattak, hakim of attock, to punish Sultan Mahmud. In a battle near Ghurghasti village, the former defeated him. Ghughashti was burnt and Jadoons driven into the Urash valley. Sultan Mahmud died in 1643 AD and was followed by his son Sultan Aziz. (Aslam Khan Jadun's "Al-Afghan", p-280-3)

Early in the 18th Century, on the expulsion of the Karlugh Turks by Syed Jalal Baba they appropriated the country about Dhamtour, and about hundred years later they took the Bagra tract from the remaining few Dilazaks who held it, while shortly before the Sikhs took the country their Hassanzai clan deprived the Karral of a portion of the Nilan valley. (See "Tarikh-i-hazarah" by Captain Wace for details)


Jadoons and Sikhs

The Jaduns, for the first time came into contact with the Sikhs in 1821 AD. The Maharaja Ranjeet Singh had summoned Hari Singh Nalwa, the governor of Kahsmir , to give an account of his charge. He marched by Muzaffarabad and Pakhli with 7,000 foot-soldiers. When he reached Mangal , he found that large number of Jadoons and Tanolis, estimated at 25,000 men , had collected there to oppose his passage. Parelying having failed, he stormed their positions and burnt their town. Some 2,000 of his opponents were killed. As a further punishment, Hari Singh levied a fine of five or six rupees on every household inhabited by Jadoons. He then built a fort at Nawanshehr (in Jadoon area),  garrisoned it and went on to lower hazara.

 Pleased at the victory won at Mangal , Ranjeet singh excused him from from rendering any accounts of his former charge , and made him governor of all hazara. ( Gazetteer of The Hazara District 1907 page 127)

Note: After the mentioned battle of Mangal, many battles were fought between Sikh forces and Jadoons. Neither could the local tribes oust the Sikhs nor the latter permanently subdue the former.

References

1-Notes on Afghanistan and Part of Baluchistan by Henry George Raverty
2- History of Pathans Vol.III by Haroon Rashid
 3-Hayat i Afghani by Muhammad Hayat Khan
4- Tarikh-i-Hazarah by Captain Wace
4- Gazetteer of The Hazara District 1907