Wednesday, March 18, 2015

Tarin tribe

The Tarins are Sarbani Pashtuns, descendants of Tarin, son of Sharkabun, son of Sarban. Tarin had three sons, namely, Abdal (Audal), Spin and Tor. According to another tradition Tarin had four sons, namely, Spin, Tor, Zhar and Bor. The descendants of Zhar have become extinct though a few families live among the Zarkhel Dehwars and the Raisani Brahuis that Bor founded the Durrani tribe. The descendants of Tor and Spin are collectively known as the Tarins. They are generally settled in Pishin, Harnai and Loralai districts of Baluchistan.

The Tarins should not be confused with the Tarans, who belong to the Ghurghusht division of the Afghans, being descended from a Syed Tahir, turned into Taran by the Afghans. He (Tahir) was adopted by Kakar.

The Spin Tareens were originally settled in Pishin, but leaving their home they migrated southwards to the Shahrig Tehsil of Sibi district, and Sanjawi and Duki Tehsils of Loralai district. The principle section in Sanjawai Tehsil are the Wanechis, who occupy parts of Wani, Chauter and Shirin valley. The principle sections of Spin Tareen in Duki Tehsil are Lasiani, Marpani, Semani, Adwani and Saam.

Tor Tareen is credited by local tradition with having had a son , Babo, who in turn had two sons, Ali and Haroon. The descendants of Ali are known as Alizai , whilst those of Haroon are divide into five principle sections found in the Pishin Tehsil. The hereditary governorship of Pishin under the Afghans long rested with Batezai branch of the Abu Bakar sub-section of the Harunzais, and as a consequence the Batezais of Pishin claim social superiority among their fellows. According to local accounts, the Umarzai Tareens came from Pishin to Smallan where the Wanechis gave them the Shinlez lands. They couldnt hold their own against Spin Tareens and proceeded to Duki,which place they took by force from Nisai-spin Tareens who had to fly to Calcutta and Barwan.

According to local tradition, the Malikyar section first established the power  of Tareens in Pishin in 14th century by conquering the Zamands. At this time the Tareens were living in the country Kanr Mehtarzai and Nigand and in Barshor. They were assisted in the conquest of Pishin by the Kakars and Saids and a pitched battle occurred at a place still known as Jangzae in which Zamands were defeated. Jangzae is near Manzakai in Alizai circle of Pishin. The Malikyar now set themselves up as governors and one Bate is said to have been sent to Delhi to obtain confirmation of the office, but obtained a Sanad in his own name , and on his return to Pishin , defeated the Malikyar and obtained the post for himself. He was succeeded by his son Khwaja Khizar , the latter being followed by his son, Kala Khan and Kala Khan by his brother, Sheram Khan, as governor. The latter is said to have been contemporary of  Emperor Shah Jahan and appears to have had to abandon his post to Tamaz Khan, a Mughal and brutal tyrant. On the latter's death, however the Tareens, appear to have regained their power, the succession being disputed by Muhammad Khan and Ahmad Khan, sons of Kala Khan. Ahmad Khan whose mother was a Baloch, called in Firuz Khan Baloch and Dinar Khan Baloch , to his aid, but the latter took advantage of the quarrel to conquer the country for themselves. They were eventually ousted by Tareens under Bahadur Khan son of Muhammad Khan, whose son Zaman Khan, now made peace with Karam Khan, grandson of Ahmad Khan and presented him with half of country. Zaman Khan was succeeded by Sad Ullah Khan, and Karam Khan by Pakar Khan. Pakar Khan was contemporary of Ahmad Shah Abdali, and appears to have done much to extend Tarin influence, as a result of which Ahamd Shah confirmed on him the title of Amir-ul-umara . On Pakar Khan's death , his son Buland Khan was nominated by Sadozai rulers as their deputy in Pishin, and he was succeeded by his son Paind Khan.[3]

On the Safavid Monarch , Shah Abbas, gaining possession of Kandahar in 1622, he conferred the government of Pishin and its tribal dependencies Sher Khan Tareen. The latter appeared to have become semi-independent and, on the death of Shah Abbas seven years later, refused to submit to the governor , Ali Mardan. In Sher Khan's absence on a plundering expedition , Ali Mardan Khan attacked Kila Sheran, his fort near Pishin Bazar, with 4,000 horse and captured it. Sher Khan Tareen had acquired large amount of treasure and other valuables in the course of a long period of plundering, the whole of which was confiscated.  Hearing of this loss, Sher Khan returned in hot speed, and encountered Ali Mardan near Pishin but was worsted and had to retire to Duki and Chotiali.[2]

Rais Khan Tareen, with a band of his clan, occupied Kalat, while Mastung with adjoining area was then occupied by the other Afghan tribes and there was no trace of the Brahuis or Balochs in the area [4]. Siwa, a Hindu raja and the first ruler of Kalat, is mentioned in the pages of history. After him, Kalat changed hands to the Mughals, Mirwanis and Baloch Rinds successively. In the battle between the Mirwanis and Rind Balochs, Umar Khan Mirwani, the chief got killed. His widow, with her minor son, named Bajaru Khan took refuge in Mastung with the Pashtuns. Subsequently Bajaru Khan married the daughter of a local Pashtun notable. With the help of the Raisanis, Bajaru Khan defeated and killed Mandu Baloch and occupied Kalat. Bajaru Khan granted some land to the Siahi clan of Raisanis, which is still held by them. With the passage of time the Siahis merged with the Mengal Balochs and gradually lost their identity as Tareen Pashtuns and moved over to Jhalawan. Later, Mir Bajaru abandoned Kalat and became a recluse. The Mughals, who were waiting in the wings, occupied Kalat; however, the Raisanis along with the neighboring Baloch clans, drove away the Mughals, and Mir Hasan Khan Ahmadzai Qambrani Brahui was proclaimed as the ruler of Kalat. The Brahuis from all over Balochistan concentrated in and around Kalat and established a powerful Khanate in the area.

Though Hasnis are now an unimportant group, amalgamated with Khetrans, they were in former days the most powerful tribes of Sewistan. The Hasnis are of Tor Tarin Origin and their ancient home was in Pishin. About three and half centuries have elapsed since Hasan and Musa Khan, Tor Tarin, with their families wandered to the Marri hills in search of livelihood. They took service with the Marris as Shepherds, and at length a Marri carried off Musa's wife. Hasan came to Pishin for help. The Tareens dispatched a party of 12 men with Hasan who was able to recover Musa's wife and kill her abductor, but a feud was thus established between the Marris and Hasnis as the Marris called their opponents from the name of their leader. The Tareens made repeated attacks on the Marris, turned them out and occupied Kahan, Phelawar and Nesao. Hasan was subsequently killed in a raiding expedition against the Brahuis in Bolan. He was succeeded by his son Muhammad, who manged the tribe for 20 years and lived in peace with his neighbors. On his death his son Nur Muhammad succeeded him. He was the chief of tribe for 30 years, and during this period Hasnis the summit of their prosperity. Nur Muhammad was succeded by his son Sadiq Khan who permitted the Marris to build a fort and live as "hamsayas" at Kahan. The Marris, however, gradually collected together and fought with the Hasnis at Phelawar, where 200 Marris and 100 Hasnis were killed. Peace was then concluded, but at the end of year quarreling again commenced with refrence to land. The Marris, now applied to Nasir Khan Brahui of Kalat for assistance and he sent a force to help them ; the Hasnis were defeated by the combined Marris and Brahuis and retired to Kohlu, which in those days belonged to Zarkun Afghans. This was about 1780 AD. Subsequently another fight ensued at Daola Wanga, when Sadiq , the Hasni chief , was killed and the power of Hasni tribe was completely broken. The place had since been called Sadiq Wanga. Sadiq's son however continued to fight against the Marris and he was assisted by a Luni force, but was again beaten; 58 Hasnis and 38 Lunis fell, whilst the Marris only lost 17 men. A further attempt resulted in total destruction of an advanced party of Lunis under their chief Gul Khan. This defeat resulted in the dispersion of the remainder of the Hasnis; a portion of the tribe took refuge with Khetrans and the Noadhanis migrated and occupied Gulu Sahar in the Sibi district. [5]

1.Loralai Gazetteer, p.82-84
2. Quetta-Pishin Gazetteer, p-34
3.  Quetta-Pishin Gazetteer, p-68-69
4. Rai Hatu Ram, Tarikh-i-Balochistan, p-172
5. Loralai Gazetteer , p-104