Saturday, April 11, 2015

Mongol invasions of India (1227-1260 AD)

During the reign of Sultan Bahram Shah , Ogatai (1227 ) sent an army under the command of Tayirl. In 1241 AD the Mongols invaded Lahore [1]and Malik Qaradash, the Muqta of Lahore, though brave and courageous failed to face them and fled to Delhi The Mongols occupied the city in December 1241 AD [2]. The Sultan then appointed Malik Qutubuddm Hasan along with others to fight and defend the frontier against the Mongols. In 1244-45 A D the Mongols led by Manguta again attempted another attack and proceeded towards Uch. When Sultan Alauddin Masud assembled his armies and reached near the Bias river the Mongols ran away from Uch and left for Khurasan in the beginning of 1246 a.d. Balban had played a significant role in this campaign.

In the year 1246 a.d., after the succession of Nasiruddin Mahmud, Balban again chased the Mongols who had come upto Jhelum river. According to Minhaj-us-Siraj no Mongol army dared invade Sindh during the year 1247-1248 due to courage and bravery of Ulugh Khan.s The visitations of Mongols did not stop and they continued to molest the frontier. In 1257 A.D. Mongols again came from Khurasan to Uch and proceeded to Milan but Malik Kishlu Khan made a treaty with their leader
Sari Nuyeen.[3]

In the year 1260 AD. Halaku sent his emissaries to Delhi. They were given a grand reception which was specially organised by Ulugh Khan.7 Halaku was very pleased with this reception.He expressed his goodwill towards the Sultan by announcing to the Mongol soldiers under the leadership of Saki Nuyeen that "if the hoof of your horse enters the dominion of Sultan Nasiruddin all the four legs of the horse shall be cut off." [4].Thus it was due to Ulugh Khan's valour and tact that peace was established on the frontier.

1. Tabqat i Nasri by Minhaj us Siraj (Tr),p -39, Tarikh i Ferishta by Ferishta (Tr) Vol.I ,p-125
2.  Tabqat i Nasri by Minhaj us Siraj (Tr),p- 40
3.  Ibid, p. 54.
4.  Tabqat-i-Nasiri by Minhaj-us-Siraj (Tr.), p. 98