Monday, August 24, 2015

Talpur-Kalhora conflict and Kabul

In Sindh, following the death of Ghulam Shah Kalhora in 1772, a bitter civil war broke out between the Kalhoras and Talpur, a Baloch tribe. In 1773 Timur Shah Durrani relocated the capital of the Durrani empire from Kandahar to Kabul. This put the empire's center even further from Sindh and Balochistan . But in the choas following Ghulam's death, Sindh again became the target of Afghan invasions, and tribute payments were re-instituted. The Sindhis revolted against Afghan rule in 1779, provoking yet another invasion by Afghan forces determined to collect tribute. Meanwhile the local rivals continued battling for rule of Sindh as Afghan proxies. After a decade of bloodshed, the Talpurs finally defeated the Kalhoras at the battle of Halani in 1782. The Afghan Emperor gave them firman, or Royal mandate, in 1783 to rule most of the Sindh. which they continued to do untill 1843. Five years later, with the Afghan Empire in further decline, the Talpurs stopped paying tribute. The Afghans continued trying to collect revenue by force for another 20 years. (A Brief History of Pakistan By James Wynbrandt, page-101).

In 1780. Miah Abdul Nabi Kalhora murdered Mir Bajjar Talpur and the Talpurs expelled Kalhoras from Sindh. Madad Khan, the Ishakzai chief, marched to Sindh and restored the Kalhora. The Nawab of Bahawalpur adopted a hostile attitude and sheltered the Talpur chief in his fort of Derawar. Mian Abdul Nabi ruled for six months. He murdered several of the leading Talpurs. They took the field and defeated him at Helani-Bhelani  (1781). The Kalhora fled to Kabul and Talpur chief was recognized as the ruler of Sindh. Fateh Ali Khan.(The Kingdom of Afghanistan: A Historical Sketch By G.P Tate, page-91)

From A.D 1786, may be dated the accession of the Talpurs, as they were about this time confirmed in their sovereignty by Timur Shah. When the latter died, Zaman Shah Durrrani, his successor to the throne of Kabul, determined to collect in person the tribute of Sindh, which had been irregularly paid by Mirs Fateh Ali Khan , Sohrab , and Tharra, and for that purpose he advanced as far as Multan. The three chiefs fled from northern host, sent penitential excuses and promises of future punctuality, by the friendly intersession of Mir Muhammad, the Wazir, the monarch was prevailed upon to forgive the past , and the fugitives were admitted into the Royal presence.  (Sindh and the Races that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus: With Notices of ...
 By Richard Burton, patge-24)


Ghulam Shah Kalhora, founded the city of Hyderabad in 1768