Thursday, December 24, 2015

The leading Kakars in the nobility of Lodi, Sur and Mughal kings

By Khan Barmazid

In 1452 AD, Sultan Bahlul Lodi sent letters to the tribes of Roh (Pakhtunkhwa) , requesting their assistance against Mahmud Sharqi of Jaunpur (who had invested Delhi) and promised them positions and jagirs in his kingdom. Large number of Kakars , alongwith other Afghans,  responded to his call and assisted Sultan Bahlul in his war with Sharqis. Some of those Kakars stayed behind in India and entered the service of Sultan Bahlul. Firuz Kakar, a chieftain of Roh, came to Hindustan in 1452 and entered the royal service. He was assigned few villages for maintenance in the pargana of Pail in the Sarakar of Sirhind. Firuz Kakar died towards the close of Bahlul's reign and his son Luqman was allowed by the same Sultan to succeed his father in his Iqta.

Malik Adam Kakar was head of the Police and Jail departments in the reigns of Sikander and Ibrahim Lodi. He commanded forces of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi when prince Jalal besieged Agra. After defeat of Ibrahim Lodi at the hands of Mughals,  Malik Adam returned to his native country Roh/Afghanistan while his sons stayed behind in India. Malik Lodha Kakar was another high ranking Kakar noble of Sultan Ibrahim Lodi.

Habib Khan Kakar was an early companion of Sher Shah Sur. He received the title of Sarmast Khan from Sher Khan for his his distinguished performance in the war with Bengali army led by Qutb Khan. In 1540 A.D. Habib Khan Kakar was posted in Lahore with Haibat Khan Niazi, Isa Khan Niazi and Khawas Khan to guard the north-western vilayat against the Mughals. Other leading amirs of Sher Shah from Kakar tribe were Walidad Khan Kakar and Hamid Khan Kakar. Sher Shah placed Hamid Khan Kakar in charge of a large hilly tract extending from Kangra to Jammu.

Masnad-i-Aala Salim Khan Kakar was one of the supreme noble of Adil Shah Sur. He was sent by the Sultan (from Chunar) with a large army of 50,000 sawars to capture Bengal from Khizr Khan. Salim Khan Kakar was treacherously killed by his deputy Taj Khan Karrani. Due to this incident, enmity developed between Kakars and Karranis. On one occasion, some 3,000 Kakar horsemen, after deserting Adil Shah,  come along with their families and pitched their tents in the vicinity of Hajipur (North Bihar), on the Ganges where they came into confrontation with Karranis. Although initially defeated, Kakars were joined by another Pashtun tribe, the Ushtarani, who had also settled in the region , and these together defeated the Karranis. They captured considerable booty including elephants which they sent to Adil Shah.

Shadi Khan Kakar was another leading general of Adil Shah. He was deputed under the command of Hemu to capture Delhi and Agra from the Mughals. Shadi Khan Kakar commanded the right wing in the second battle of Panipat. He along with his father, Khwaja Kakar, were slain in the battle.

Kakars also rose into prominence as Mansabdars of Mughals. Ali Khan was one of the Humayun's Paladin. In the reign of Akbar, he had rank of 2000 Zat. Another Kakar mansabdar Salim Khan Kakar held the rank of 1000 Zat in the reign of Akbar. Bahadur Khan Kakar was a close associate of Mirza Nathan (author of Baharistan-i-Ghaibi) of unknown rank. He assisted Mirza Nathan in Assam campaigns. Another Kakar officer mentioned in Baharistan-i-Ghaibi is Shah Muhammad Kakar,  noted for his valour in  Kamrup and Assam campaigns in 1619.

Ibrahim Khan Kakar was initially in the service of Daud Khan Karrani, the last Afghan ruler of Bengal. He entered entered into the Mughal service after fall of Karrani sultanate. During Jehangir's reign, he received the title of Dilawar Khan and served as governor of Lahore in 1606 and governor of Kashmir in 1618. At the time of his death , in 1620 A.D, he held the rank of 4000 Zat and 3000 Sawar. His son Jahan Khan Kakar held the rank of 2000 Zat and 1000 Sawar during the reign of Shah Jahan. Jalal Khan Kakar, the younger son of Dilawar Khan, served as faujdar of Jammu during the reign of Shahjahan. He was a close associate of Aurangzeb during latter's subedari of Deccan.  After ascending the throne, Aurangzeb raised him to the rank of 3000 Zat and 2000 Sawar and assigned him the faujdari of Hoshangabad in Malwa.

Other notable Kakars in the service of Mughals were Rahim Khan Kakar, Hamid Khan Kakar and Kakar Khan.

Add Mausoleum of a Sufi saint Makhdoom Shah Daulat (d 1608) in Patna was built in 1616 A.D  by Ibrahim Khan Kakar (Dilawar Khan Kakar)


1- Tarikh-i-Khanjahani wa Makhzan-i-Afghani

2- The Afghan nobility and the Mughals: 1526-1707

3- Some aspects of Afghan despotism in India

4- The First Afghan Empire in India, 1451-1526 A. D

5- History of the Pathans, Vol-III

6- Maathir-ul-umara, Vol,1

7- Zakhirat-ul-khwanin, Vol-II

8- Baharistan-i-Ghaibi