Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Tanolis or Tunawalis

A Tanoli, Hazara, 1868. From Kaye and Watson collection.

Tanolis or Tunawalis  (تناولی) claim descent from Barlas Mughals. They are divided into two divisions, Pul-Al and Hando-Al, the former occupy Lower Tunawal, and the latter occupy Upper Tunawal . In 1907 they numbered 58,700.(Hazara Gazetteer 1907, p-29)

In 1792's surveys, following description of Tanolis and their country is given ;

"Tunawal is the name of a small territory lying on the east bank of the Aba-Sin, about twenty kuroh in length, and about the same in breadth, through which the Siran river flows from north to south, but inclining a little to the south-west. It is a very mountainous tract of country, and its inhabitants belong to different tribes, a number. of whom are Afghans; and the Pushto language is spoken among them all. The chieftainship lies with the Tunawalis, who account themselves to be of Mughal descent; but, at present, they are scarcely distinguishable in their appearance from the Afghans and various other peoples of this part. Latterly, according to some accounts, they have laid claim to be descended from the tribe of Birlas –Amir Timur's own tribe. “The Tunawal's number about 20,000 families, and consist of two septs or divisions, named respectively Pul Al, and Hando or Ando Al, the words being written both ways. The former hold the parts east of the Siran, or south-east portion of Tunawal, and the latter those on the west or north-west part. The latter tracts belong to Pa'indah Khan, and were held by his ancestors before him. Their chief places and seat of authority are Bir, Puhar, and Dera'h."

Tanawal, or Tunawal, as the Akhand, Darwezah, and the people of the district itself, write the word and pronounce it ——was overrun by the Afghans in the latter part of Akbar Badshah's reign. The contemporary writer Akhund Darwezah, says in his Tazkirat, that, from the time of Malik Ahmad and Khan Kaju up to his own time, the most powerful chief among the Yasufzís and Mandars was 'Ali Asghar, and the most successful in his enterprises. No chief among them had reduced the Kohistan of Tunawal, but he accomplished it, with the aid of other headmen of the subdivisions of the two tribes, such as Malik Hindal, the Akozi; Malik Bábá, Malizi; Matah Khan, and Mulla Ibrahim, Ilyaszi; Malik Tarki, Mandar; and others. 'Ali Asghar completely reduced that tract, and expelled its former inhabitants. From that time portions of Afghan tribes have been settled on the Indus, in parts formerly included in Tunawal ("Notes on Afghánistan and Part of Baluchistan", Henry George Raverty, pp-275-276)

From Asiatic Journal, 1841 (p-223) ;

"There is one chief who, though not an Eusofzye, yet from his position in the midst of, and intimate connection with, the Eusofzyes, and his singular history and character, must not be omitted in a description of the Eusofzye country. Paieendah Khan, of Tanawul, is a Mogul of the Birlas tribe, the same from which the Ameer Timoor was descended. All record of the first settlement in Tanawul of his family is lost, and it has long ago broken off all connection with the other branches of the Birlas, which are still to be found in Turkestan. The Tanawulees, who from their dialect, a corrupt Hindoostani, seem to be of eastern origin, are divided into two " tuppahs," the principal of which is Pulal, the other Hindowal, and these two divisions are, or were, respectively governed by two branches of the Birlas family. Paieendah Khan is descended from the junior branch, the Khans of the Hindowal, who had little power till the time of Nawab Khan (father of Paieendah), whose father having been killed by the chief of the Pulals, set himself up against them. Nawab Khan had the advantage of possessing the Douranee road, and enriched himself by a toll on all who travelled his way. The Douranees were constantly passing and repassing to and from Cashmeer, and their pride, as may well be conceived, could ill brook paying tribute to a petty tribe like the Tanawulees; much quarrelling and heart-burning was the consequence. "