Thursday, 22 March 2018

Jalalabad [Afghanistan]

The old name of Jalalabad was Jui Shahi. The Jalalabad fort was built by Mun‘im Khan ( a Mughal noble under both emperors Humayun and Akbar) and received its name in compliment to Akbar, (one of whose names was Jalal-ud-din), and who got Jui Shahi as his appanage in succession to his uncle Hindal, whose daughter also he married.

Abu Fazal (court historian of Akbar) states that it was Munim Khan who gave Jui Shahi its 'holy appellation' and colonized it. As he was governor of Kabul from 1555 to 1560, the bestowal of the name of Jalalabad should be referred to that period. From Akbarnama ;
"...He (Muhammad Kamran) gave in fief to Muhammad Ashari, Jui Shahi which is now known as Jalalabad, in accordance with the auspicious title of the Shahinshah. It is a delightful spot and a partition (barzakh) between India and foreign countries, being replete with the advantages of the one and exempt from the evils of the other. It was Munim Khan who gave it its holy appellation and who colonised it." [Eng-trans, Vol-I, p-565]
".....For some days he (Humayun) treated Hindal with severity but afterwards out of brotherhood and from hypocrisy in the guise of concord, gave him the fertile tract of Jui Shahi, which now bears the name of his Majesty the king of kings, and is called Jalalabad." [ibid, p-408]

Aha-l-Fazl also states that Adinah-pur was formerly the chief official place of Lamghan, but now Jalalabad is ; and that near Adinah-pur is the Bagh-i-Wafa.

Bayzid Bayat (who served both emperors Humayun and Akbar,) informs us that Humayun in 1552 built a fort at Jui Shahi, where later on another fort was constructed called Jalalabad after the name of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar. [Reference: "Memoirs of Bayazid Biyat" by H.Beveridge, JASB, Vol-67, p-307]

Note: Adinapur and Jui Shahi (Jalalabad) were distinct places though they were were not far apart. Babur in his diary says,
" We made some delay in Adinapur in order to let the men from behind join us, also a contingent from the clans which had come with us into Kabul and were wintering in the Lamghanat. All having joined us, we marched to below Jui-shahi and dismounted at Qush-gumbaz" [The Illustrated Baburnama ,p-151]. 

Adinapur is now Bala-bagh, a village distant about 13 miles westward from Jalalabad near the banks of the Surkhrud, a small tributary of the Kabul river. [Mason, "Narrative of Various Journeys in Baluchistan, Afghanistan and Punjab, Vol-I, pp.180-182]

The Kabul Gate in the city wall of Jalalabad1878. Photo by John Burke

City wall of Jalalabad where General William Elphinstone was buried in 1842 1878-9

Scene outside Jalalabad 1878-9. Photo by John Burke

A group of Afghan men, Jalalabad, 1878 (c).

A Weaver at Jalalabad, Afghanistan, 1879. The Illustrated London News

The main street in Jalalabad, 1879. By John Burke

Jalalabad city, 1878-9. Photo by John Burke.

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